20172016201520142013
Gross advertising spending (MM)$1,124.0$1,164.0$1,171.0$1,189.0$1,185.0
Gross advertising spending growth-3.4%-0.6%-1.5%0.3%1.9%
Vendor allowances (MM)$138.0$148.0$160.0$165.0$172.0
Vendor allowances growth-6.8%-7.5%-3.0%-4.1%1.2%
Net advertising spending (MM)$986.0$1,016.0$1,011.0$1,024.0$1,013.0
Net advertising spending growth-3.0%0.5%-1.3%1.1%2.0%
Net advertising spending % of total revenues5.2%5.4%5.3%5.4%5.3%

Notes:Advertising costs primarily consist of television and radio broadcast, direct mail, digital, and newspaper circulars; Vendor allowances represent reimbursements of advertising costs incurred to promote vendors’ merchandise