Advertising primarily consists of traditional direct mail, e-mail and online advertising, as well as point-of-sale materials posted and distributed in stores. In certain markets, radio and newspaper advertising is also used on a selective basis, and the company arranges for special appearances and book autograph sessions with recognized authors. Vendor allowances represent reimbursements from publishers through cooperative advertising programs.

Gross advertising spending (MM)$5.7$5.4$5.5$5.5$5.6
Gross advertising spending growth5.6%-1.8%0.0%-1.8%7.7%
Vendor allowances (MM)$2.5$1.1$1.9$2.2$2.1
Vendor allowances growth127.3%-42.1%-13.6%4.8%23.5%
Net advertising spending (MM)$3.2$4.3$3.6$3.3$3.5
Net advertising spending growth-25.6%19.4%9.1%-5.7%0.0%
Net advertising spending % of total revenues0.7%0.9%0.7%0.7%0.7%