Advertising primarily consists of traditional direct mail, e-mail and online advertising, as well as point-of-sale materials posted and distributed in stores. In certain markets, radio and newspaper advertising is also used on a selective basis, and the company arranges for special appearances and book autograph sessions with recognized authors. Vendor allowances represent reimbursements from publishers through cooperative advertising programs.

20152014201320122011
Gross advertising spending (MM)$5.7$5.4$5.5$5.5$5.6
Gross advertising spending growth5.6%-1.8%0.0%-1.8%7.7%
Vendor allowances (MM)$2.5$1.1$1.9$2.2$2.1
Vendor allowances growth127.3%-42.1%-13.6%4.8%23.5%
Net advertising spending (MM)$3.2$4.3$3.6$3.3$3.5
Net advertising spending growth-25.6%19.4%9.1%-5.7%0.0%
Net advertising spending % of total revenues0.7%0.9%0.7%0.7%0.7%