Advertising consists primarily of contractual marketing fees paid to certain cable operators for cross channel promotions and internet advertising, including amounts paid to online search engine operators, customer mailings and traffic-driving affiliate websites.

20162015201420132012
Gross advertising spending (MM)N/A$6.7$4.8$3.7$2.9
Gross advertising spending growthN/A39.3%30.1%27.5%-3.0%
Vendor allowances (MM)N/A$3.4$2.9$1.9$1.1
Vendor allowances growthN/A19.0%52.8%76.3%20.4%
Net advertising spending (MM)$3.7$3.3$1.9$1.8$1.8
Net advertising spending growth12.8%69.6%6.5%-0.9%-12.9%
Net advertising spending % of total revenues0.6%0.5%0.3%0.3%0.3%