Marketing efforts include systemwide promotions, generally highlighting limited time products and signature menu items, supported by television, radio, interactive media, point-of-sale materials and other media.

20162015201420132012
Total advertising spending (MM)$264.8$256.5$236.4$227.7$222.4
Total advertising spending growth3.3%8.5%3.8%2.4%3.0%
Franchisee advertising contribution (MM)$241.4$232.0$214.0$205.3$199.8
Franchisee advertising contribution growth4.1%8.4%4.2%2.8%3.3%
Net advertising spending (MM)$23.4$24.5$22.4$22.4$22.6
Net advertising spending growth-4.5%9.4%0.0%-0.9%0.4%
Net advertising spending % of total revenues3.9%4.0%4.1%4.1%4.2%

Notes:Franchise advertising contribution estimated based on assumption of 5.9% of gross sales