Marketing efforts include systemwide promotions, generally highlighting limited time products and signature menu items, supported by television, radio, interactive media, point-of-sale materials and other media.

20172016201520142013
Total advertising spending (MM)$258.4$264.8$256.5$236.4$227.7
Total advertising spending growth-2.4%3.3%8.5%3.8%2.4%
Franchisee advertising contribution (MM)$242.6$241.4$232.0$214.0$205.3
Franchisee advertising contribution growth0.5%4.1%8.4%4.2%2.8%
Net advertising spending (MM)$15.8$23.4$24.5$22.4$22.4
Net advertising spending growth-32.5%-4.5%9.4%0.0%-0.9%
Net advertising spending % of total revenues3.3%3.9%4.0%4.1%4.1%

Notes:Franchise advertising contribution estimated based on assumption of 5.9% of gross sales