Advertising includes national and region network and cable television, radio, newspaper, the internet and a variety of promotional campaigns, including social media.

20162015201420132012
Total advertising spending (MM)$383.3$386.9$382.2$380.4$385.6
Total advertising spending growth-0.9%1.2%0.5%-1.4%-0.4%
Franchisee advertising contribution (MM)$342.2$322.6$308.7$285.9$282.5
Franchisee advertising contribution growth6.1%4.5%8.0%1.2%0.7%
Net advertising spending (MM)$41.1$64.3$73.5$94.5$103.1
Net advertising spending growth-36.1%-12.4%-22.3%-8.4%-3.3%
Net advertising spending % of total revenues2.9%3.4%3.7%3.9%4.2%

Notes:Franchisee contribution estimated by eMarketer based on assumption that all franchisees contribute 4.0% of gross sales to advertising funds