Advertising includes national and region network and cable television, radio, newspaper, the internet and a variety of promotional campaigns, including social media.

20172016201520142013
Total advertising spending (MM)$414.3$401.4$402.3$389.2$383.3
Total advertising spending growth3.2%-0.2%3.3%1.5%-0.6%
Franchisee advertising contribution (MM)$386.4$360.4$337.9$315.8$288.8
Franchisee advertising contribution growth7.2%6.6%7.0%9.3%2.2%
Net advertising spending (MM)$27.9$41.1$64.3$73.5$94.5
Net advertising spending growth-32.0%-36.1%-12.4%-22.3%-8.4%
Net advertising spending % of total revenues2.3%2.9%3.4%3.7%3.9%

Notes:Franchisee contribution estimated by eMarketer based on assumption that all franchisees contribute 4.0% of gross sales to advertising funds