Marketing efforts include the use of local television, radio, print, targeted mail, flyers, digital display ads, email marketing, text messages and social media.

20172016201520142013
Total advertising spending (MM)$209.3$186.6$176.1$167.2$154.0
Total advertising spending growth12.1%6.0%5.3%8.6%6.8%
Franchisee advertising contribution (MM)$137.0$115.7$108.9$103.7$94.8
Franchisee advertising contribution growth18.4%6.3%5.0%9.4%5.9%
Net advertising spending (MM)$72.3$70.9$67.2$63.5$59.2
Net advertising spending growth2.0%5.6%5.8%7.3%8.4%
Net advertising spending % of total revenues4.1%4.1%4.1%4.0%4.1%

Notes:Franchisee contribution estimated by eMarketer based on assumption that all franchisees contribute 4.5% of gross sales to advertising funds